Although throughput fell by 6.1 per cent in 2023, the Port of Rotterdam’s financial results were stable. Last year saw major investment decisions that are contributing to making the port and the logistics chain to and from Rotterdam more sustainable.

Total cargo throughput in the port of Rotterdam in 2023 amounted to 438.8 million tonnes, 6.1 per cent less than in 2022 (467.4 million tonnes). The fall was mainly seen in coal throughput, containers and other dry bulk. Throughput rose in the agribulk, iron ore & scrap, and LNG segments. As the financial results were stable, the Port Authority can commit to further investments for a future-resilient port in the years to come.

‘2023 saw ongoing geopolitical unrest, low economic growth due to higher interest rates and faltering global trade, all of which had a logical effect on throughput in the port of Rotterdam,’ says Boudewijn Siemons, CEO of the Port of Rotterdam Authority. ‘However, the year also saw many major investment decisions and milestones in the transition to a sustainable port. We made the final investment decision for the construction of the CO2 transport and storage project, Porthos.’

Siemons adds: ‘Construction work also began on the national hydrogen network in the port of Rotterdam. And we celebrated a number of significant developments in the logistics segment this year, such as the announcement of the expansions of the APMT and RWG container terminals, and the opening of the CER. All these developments will take us a step closer to a successful and future-resilient port and industrial complex.’

Watch a video with Siemons on the Port of Rotterdam’s results below (in Dutch, English subtitles available).


The Port Authority has had a stable year financially. Revenue rose by 1.9 per cent to EUR 841.5 million, consisting mainly of contract revenue from land lease, and port dues. As a result of price changes and new contracts, contract revenue rose by EUR 28.4 million. Revenue from port dues fell by EUR 4.6 million due to a combination of lower throughput and a higher price per tonne. The net result was 5.6 per cent (EUR 13.7 million) down at EUR 233.5 million (2022: EUR 247.2 million).

The net result was 5.6 per cent (€ 13.7 million) down at € 233.5 million (2022: € 247.2 million). The Port Authority invested a total of EUR 295.4 million, almost 15 per cent more than in 2022 (EUR 257.0 million). The largest investments in 2023 were the investments in quay walls for the container sector (€ 72.9 million), land reclamation for the Prinses Alexiahaven (EUR 23.1 million) and the fendering in the Rozenburg lock (EUR 12.8 million).

Also read: Tender for floating solar farm in Port of Rotterdam

Dry bulk

The throughput of dry bulk in 2023 was 11.8 per cent down on 2022. A striking development in the agribulk segment was the increase in maize imports by fifty per cent after crop failures due to drought and floods in Europe.

Coal throughput fell by 20.3 per cent to 23.1 million tonnes, mainly because of low demand for energy coal for power production. In 2022, demand for energy coal rose sharply due to concerns about energy security and large increases in gas prices.

The throughput of crude oil was 9.9 per cent higher at 28.1 million tonnes. Ore stocks were replenished after low imports of ore in 2022 pursuant to low steel production. Outgoing scrap in Rotterdam was 32 per cent higher. The negative figures for the throughput of other dry bulk are attributable to lower demand for raw materials from European industry.

Liquid bulk

Liquid bulk throughput was 3.4 per cent lower last year. Crude oil fell by 1.4 per cent with the discontinuation of ship-to-ship transshipment. Throughput of mineral oil products fell by 6.5 per cent, mainly because of the decline in the throughput of fuel oil and naphtha. This meant that the throughput of gas oil was higher than that of fuel oil for the first time.

LNG throughput was 3.7 per cent higher at 11.9 million tonnes. Europe continues to import large amounts of LNG to replace pipeline imports of Russian natural gas. There was also more bunkering in seagoing LNG tankers. Other liquid wet bulk was 5.9 per cent down in all underlying categories (chemical, renewable and vegetable products) at 36.1 million tonnes, primarily because of low demand and stock reductions.

Also read: Boudewijn Siemons appointed Port of Rotterdam CEO

Containers and breakbulk

Container throughput in tonnes was 6.8 per cent lower in 2023 at 130.1 million tonnes; the fall in TEUs was 7.0 per cent to 13.4 million TEU. Container throughput has proved to be very volatile in recent years in response to Covid and geopolitical developments. The decline that began in 2022 continued in 2023. The main reasons are lower consumption, lower production in Europe and the discontinuation of volumes to and from Russia pursuant to the sanctions.

Roll-on/roll-off traffic (RoRo) fell by 5.0 per cent to 25.9 million tonnes. The weak British economy and lagging consumption continue to be the main causes. The 5.0 per cent fall in other breakbulk is largely attributable to the decline in container rates, which fell sharply in 2023, resulting in more cargo being shipped in containers rather than as break bulk. In addition, disappointing demand in Europe due to inflation and rising interest rates meant that many stocks were left in breakbulk terminals for long periods of time, leaving less room for additional cargo acquisition.

Investments in port development

  • Expansion of container terminals by APMT and RWG: Container Terminals APM Terminals and Rotterdam World Gateway (RWG) have announced plans to expand their terminals in the Princess Amaliahaven in 2023. The APMT expansion covers a site of some 47.5 hectares, including a deep-sea quay with a total length of one kilometre. It will add about two million TEUs in terminal capacity. The completion of the quay is planned for the second half of 2024. At RWG, the expansion involves about 45 hectares of terminal land and 920 metres of quay wall, increasing RWG’s capacity by 1.8 million TEUs in phases. Both terminals will be prepared for the use of shore power and will operate in carbon-neutral ways.
  • Container Exchange Route (CER): The CER went into operation in late 2023. The 17-kilometre closed road network currently connects the container terminals of Rotterdam World Gateway (RWG), the Delta terminal of Hutchison Ports ECT Rotterdam (ECT), the terminals and depots of QTerminals Kramer Rotterdam (KDD, RCT and DCS) and the State Inspection Terminal of the Customs Authority. The CER is making a major contribution to security, integrity, efficiency and sustainability in the Port of Rotterdam.
  • Nextlogic operational: After an intensive pilot phase, the green light was given for Nextlogic in January 2023. Nextlogic will allow for the faster handling of inland container vessels and the optimal utilisation of quays. Several parties were scaled up last year, resulting in 1 million container moves being processed and time spent in the port falling by over 20 per cent.
  • Widening of the Yangtzekanaal: In the years to come, more and increasingly larger container vessels will pass through the Yangtzekanaal to the Maasvlakte terminals. To accommodate them, the navigable channel of the Yangtze Canal will be widened along its entire length in the years ahead. The project consists of three subprojects. The first subproject began in September 2023 and it involves the construction of 500 metres of quay immediately alongside the entrance to the port of Rotterdam. Berths, including shore power, are being established at this quay for twelve tugs. Completion and commissioning are planned for early 2025.

Also read: Air Liquide to build CO2 capture unit in Port of Rotterdam

Energy transition projects

  • Porthos: The definitive investment decision was made for Porthos in mid-October. The Porthos system for the transport and storage of CO2 consists of an onshore pipeline running from Botlek through the port area to a compressor station on the Maasvlakte. From the compressor station, the CO2 pipeline goes to empty gas fields under the bed of the North Sea. Thanks to Porthos, 2.5 million tonnes of CO2 a year will soon be captured and permanently stored.
  • Construction of national hydrogen network: The construction of the national hydrogen network began officially on 27 October in the port of Rotterdam. The network, which is open to all hydrogen suppliers and buyers, will soon be 1200 kilometres long and it will provide five Dutch industrial clusters with access to green hydrogen. The first section of more than 30 kilometres connects the Maasvlakte conversion facility to Pernis. The first of four hydrogen plants is now being built at the conversion facility. This 200-MW hydrogen plant, the Holland Hydrogen 1, makes green hydrogen with electricity from offshore wind farms and is expected to be in a position to supply the first green hydrogen to the production site in Pernis in 2025. The proposed Delta Rhine Corridor will also provide a connection to Germany.
  • Shore power: Construction on the shore power installation for cruise vessels at the Holland America Quay began in early June. Boskalis commissioned a large-scale shore power facility at its Waalhaven location in November. Some of the DFDS vessels that dock in Vlaardingen have been supplied with electricity from a shore power installation since late 2023.
  • Distro Energy launched: Distro Energy, a scale-up of the Port of Rotterdam Authority, has developed an intelligent and fully automated trading platform that allows companies to trade the green energy they produce between themselves locally and to optimise consumption. Initially, the marketplace will grow over the next year, primarily with the arrival of users in the Rotterdam industrial and port cluster. They include not only customers and producers, but also energy suppliers and grid operators.
  • Land reclamation Princess Alexiahaven: The energy transition is generating a lot of demand for locations in the port area. The Port of Rotterdam Authority is therefore making some areas around the Princess Alexiahaven suitable to accommodate new clients. Just under 10 million m3 of sand will be used to reclaim 85 hectares of land. Work began in July 2023 and it will continue until the summer of 2024.

Supportive government policy needed

The port of Rotterdam creates significant economic and social value for people in Rotterdam, the Netherlands and Europe. Investments by the Port Authority and the port business community in Rotterdam focus on numerous projects that facilitate the transition to a new, more sustainable economy.

It is therefore essential for the next Dutch government to devote enough attention to related factors such as adequate capacity on the electricity grid, an accessible port, a decisive nitrogen policy, and enough well-trained technical personnel to keep the transition going and strengthen the investment climate for the industry (including the chemical industry) in the Netherlands. This requires active and supportive policy from The Hague in terms of both measures and resources.

Siemons: ‘We are very concerned about the deteriorating investment climate and competitive position of industry in the Netherlands, including the chemical industry. The sector makes a crucial contribution to the transition to a sustainable economy. To maintain the pace of the energy and raw materials transition, the government needs to make difficult decisions. Companies need to know where they stand, and the Netherlands must once again become the location for the innovative and sustainable chemical industry.’

Also read: Only slight impact of Red Sea unrest on Rotterdam throughput


Against the backdrop of geopolitical developments and upcoming elections in several countries, 2024 is also expected to be an unpredictable year. It is all the more important in these turbulent times for the port to maintain a steady course and to implement plans that will further the transition.

Construction work will begin on Porthos in 2024 and the development of the second conversion facility will continue. Investment decisions are expected for hydrogen plants, bio-refineries, the Maasvlakte-Zuid rail yard and the Princess Alexia Viaduct on the Maasvlakte.

Furthermore, new steps are being taken to establish shore power facilities for cruise vessels, container vessels and RoRo vessels, among others. Work will also continue in 2024 on the deployment and availability of new, renewable fuels, and investments will be made in charging infrastructure for electric trucks to meet the expected demand for sustainable road transportation.